Alempien virtsateiden toimintahäiriöiden uusi kansainvälinen terminologia
Urinary Incontinence Symptoms
- Urinary incontinence (symptom): Complaint of involuntary loss of urine.
- Stress (urinary) incontinence: Complaint of involuntary loss of urine on effort or physical exertion (e.g. sporting activities), or on sneezing or coughing. N.B. "activity-related incontinence" might be preferred in some languages to avoid confusion with psychological stress.
- Urgency (urinary) incontinence: Complaint of involuntary loss of urine associated with urgency.
- Postural (urinary) incontinence: (NEW) Complaint of involuntary loss of urine associated with change of body position, e.g. rising from a seated or lying position.
- Nocturnal enuresis: Complaint of involuntary urinary loss of urine which occurs during sleep.
- Mixed (urinary) incontinence: Complaint of involuntary loss of urine associated with urgency and, also, with effort or physical exertion or on sneezing or coughing.
- Continuous (urinary) incontinence: Complaint of continuous involuntary loss of urine.
- Insensible (urinary) incontinence: (NEW) Complaint of urinary incontinence where the woman has been unaware of how it occurred.
- Coital incontinence: (NEW) Complaint of involuntary loss of urine with coitus. This symptom might be further divided into that occurring with penetration and that occurring at orgasm.
Bladder Storage Symptoms
- Increased daytime urinary frequency: Complaint that micturition occurs more frequently during waking hours than previously deemed normal by the woman.
- Nocturia: Complaint of interruption of sleep one or more times because of the need to micturate. Each void is preceded and followed by sleep.
- Urgency: Complaint of a sudden, compelling desire to pass urine which is difficult to defer.
- Overactive bladder (OAB, Urgency) syndrome: Urinary urgency, usually accompanied by frequency and nocturia, with or without urgency urinary incontinence, in the absence of urinary tract infection or other obvious pathology.
- Sensory symptoms: A departure from normal sensation or function, experienced by the woman during bladder filling. Normally, the individual is aware of increasing sensation with bladder filling up to a strong desire to void.
- Increased bladder sensation: Complaint that the desire to void during bladder filling occurs earlier or is more persistent to that previous experienced. N.B. This differs from urgency by the fact that micturition can be postponed despite the desire to void.
- Reduced bladder sensation: Complaint that the definite desire to void occurs later to that previously experienced despite an awareness that the bladder is filling.
- Absent bladder sensation: Complaint of both the absence of the sensation of bladder filling and a definite desire to void.
Voiding and Postmicturition Symptoms
- Voiding symptoms: A departure from normal sensation or function, experienced by the woman during or following the act of micturition.
- Hesitancy: Complaint of a delay in initiating micturition.
- Slow stream: Complaint of a urinary stream perceived as slower compared to previous performance or in comparison with others.
- Intermittency: Complaint of urine flow that stops and starts on one or more occasions during voiding.
- Straining to void: Complaint of the need to make an intensive effort (by abdominal straining, Valsalva or suprapubic pressure) to either initiate, maintain or improve the urinary stream.
- Spraying (splitting) of urinary stream: Complaint that the urine passage is a spray or split rather than a single discrete stream.
- Feeling of incomplete (bladder) emptying: Complaint that the bladder does not feel empty after micturition.
- Need to immediately re-void: Complaint that further micturition is necessary soon after passing urine.
- Post-micturition leakage: Complaint of a further involuntary passage of urine following the completion of micturition.
- Position-dependent micturition: (NEW) Complaint of having to take specific positions to be able to micturate spontaneously or to improve bladder emptying e.g. leaning forwards or backwards on the toilet seat or voiding in the semi-standing position.
- Dysuria: Complaint of burning or other discomfort during micturition. Discomfort may be intrinsic to the lower urinary tract or external (vulvar dysuria).
- (Urinary) retention: (NEW) Complaint of the inability to pass urine despite persistent effort.
Viite: «Haylen BT, de Ridder D, Freeman RM ym. An International Urogynecological Association (IUGA)/International Continence Society (ICS) joint report on the terminology for female pelvic floor dysfunction. »1
- Haylen BT, de Ridder D, Freeman RM ym. An International Urogynecological Association (IUGA)/International Continence Society (ICS) joint report on the terminology for female pelvic floor dysfunction. Int Urogynecol J 2010;21:5-26 «PMID: 19937315»PubMed