Oral contraceptives and cervical cancer
- Evidence on the relationship between oral contraceptives and cervical cancer is conflicting.
The number of related publications is small.
- A meta-analysis by Moreno et al. «Moreno V, Bosch FX, Muñoz N et al.Effect of oral c...»1 demonstrated an increase in the risk of cervical cancer, OR 2.82 (1.46–5.42),
after more than 5 years of use. However, the results were not adjusted as regards
- Evidence on the clearance and persistence of an HPV infection is also conflicting.
Some publications demonstrate the use of oral contraceptives speeds up clearance
«Marks M, Gravitt PE, Gupta SB et al.Combined oral ...»2, «Nielsen A, Kjaer SK, Munk C et al.Persistence of h...»3, while others show it increases infection persistence «Molano M, Van den Brule A, Plummer M et al.Determi...»4 or has no effect «Moscicki AB, Ma Y, Farhat S et al.Redetection of c...»5.
- All these studies include problems as regards adjustment for age, menarche, sexual
activity, number of partners, other infections, smoking, HPV infections and HPV types.
Thus, the evidence is uncertain either way.
IUDs and cervical cancer
- There is not enough evidence on the subject.
- Moreno V, Bosch FX, Muñoz N et al.Effect of oral contraceptives on risk of cervical
cancer in women with human papillomavirus infection: the IARC multicentric case-control
study. Lancet 2002;359:1085-92 «PMID: 11943255»PubMed
- Marks M, Gravitt PE, Gupta SB et al.Combined oral contraceptive use increases HPV
persistence but not new HPV detection in a cohort of women from Thailand. J Infect
Dis 2011;204:1505-13 «PMID: 21964399»PubMed
- Nielsen A, Kjaer SK, Munk C et al.Persistence of high-risk human papillomavirus infection
in a population-based cohort of Danish women. J Med Virol 2010;82:616-23 «PMID: 20166190»PubMed
- Molano M, Van den Brule A, Plummer M et al.Determinants of clearance of human papillomavirus
infections in Colombian women with normal cytology: a population-based, 5-year follow-up
study. Am J Epidemiol 2003;158:486-94 «PMID: 12936904»PubMed
- Moscicki AB, Ma Y, Farhat S et al.Redetection of cervical human papillomavirus type
16 (HPV16) in women with a history of HPV16. J Infect Dis 2013;208:403-12 «PMID: 23599313»PubMed