COPD diagnosis is based on exposure to hazards, symptoms and spirometry, where the ratio of the forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) is < 0.7 after bronchodilation. The clinical severity of COPD is assessed by means of FEV1 -based Z-values, symptoms and exacerbations. Symptoms can be assessed by respiratory questionnaires. Smoking cessation and physical activity are important treatment options. Pharmacological treatment is determined by symptoms, risk of exacerbations and co-occurrence of asthma features (ACO). Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is recommended in the treatment of severe hypercapnic exacerbations. Palliative treatment of end stage COPD is included in the guidelines.
Terttu Harju (Chair)