Voiding and Postmicturition Symptoms
- Voiding symptoms: A departure from normal sensation or function, experienced by the
woman during or following the act of micturition.
- Hesitancy: Complaint of a delay in initiating micturition.
- Slow stream: Complaint of a urinary stream perceived as slower compared to previous
performance or in comparison with others.
- Intermittency: Complaint of urine flow that stops and starts on one or more occasions
- Straining to void: Complaint of the need to make an intensive effort (by abdominal
straining, Valsalva or suprapubic pressure) to either initiate, maintain or improve
the urinary stream.
- Spraying (splitting) of urinary stream: Complaint that the urine passage is a spray
or split rather than a single discrete stream.
- Feeling of incomplete (bladder) emptying: Complaint that the bladder does not feel
empty after micturition.
- Need to immediately re-void: Complaint that further micturition is necessary soon
after passing urine.
- Post-micturition leakage: Complaint of a further involuntary passage of urine following
the completion of micturition.
- Position-dependent micturition: (NEW) Complaint of having to take specific positions
to be able to micturate spontaneously or to improve bladder emptying e.g. leaning
forwards or backwards on the toilet seat or voiding in the semi-standing position.
- Dysuria: Complaint of burning or other discomfort during micturition. Discomfort may
be intrinsic to the lower urinary tract or external (vulvar dysuria).
- (Urinary) retention: (NEW) Complaint of the inability to pass urine despite persistent
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