KH2014 Suositus KH2014 Suositus

ADHD (aktiivisuuden ja tarkkaavuuden häiriö, lapset ja nuoret)
Käypä hoito -suositus |  Julkaistu: 08.10.2013   | Tila: päivityksessä  |  Aihepiiri(t): Kuntoutus, Lastenneurologia, Lastenpsykiatria, Nuorisopsykiatria, Yleislääketiede
Mikä on Käypä hoito -suositus?
Suomalaisen Lääkäriseuran Duodecimin, Suomen Lastenneurologinen yhdistys ry:n, Suomen Nuorisopsykiatrisen yhdistyksen ja Suomen Lastenpsykiatriyhdistyksen asettama työryhmä
PDF Tulosta

ADHD (aktiivisuuden ja tarkkaavuuden häiriö, lapset ja nuoret)

Käypä hoito
8.10.2013
Suomalaisen Lääkäriseuran Duodecimin, Suomen Lastenneurologinen yhdistys ry:n, Suomen Nuorisopsykiatrisen yhdistyksen ja Suomen Lastenpsykiatriyhdistyksen asettama työryhmä

Keskeinen sanoma

  • Aktiivisuuden ja tarkkaavuuden häiriö (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ADHD) on toimintakykyä heikentävä tavallinen häiriö, jonka keskeiset oireet ovat tarkkaamattomuus, ylivilkkaus ja impulsiivisuus.
  • ADHD:n diagnosointiin tarvitaan lapsen tai nuoren tutkimus, perhetilanteen ja muiden ympäristötekijöiden kartoitus sekä riittävästi tietoa toimintakyvystä eri tilanteissa.
  • ADHD:n hyvä hoito suunnitellaan yksilöllisten tarpeiden ja tavoitteiden mukaan. Keskeisiä keinoja ovat lapseen tai nuoreen ja hänen ympäristöönsä kohdistuvat tukitoimet, psykososiaaliset hoitomuodot sekä lääkehoito.
  • ADHD:n kanssa esiintyy usein samanaikaisesti muita psykiatrisia ja neurologisia häiriöitä, jotka on tunnistettava ja otettava huomioon hoidossa.
  • Hoidon on oltava riittävän pitkäjänteistä, ja ADHD-diagnoosin saanutta lasta tai nuorta tulee tukea erilaisissa siirtymävaiheissa.
  • Hoitamattomana ADHD voi haitata opintoja ja työllistymistä ja lisätä psykiatristen häiriöiden, syrjäytymisen ja päihteiden käytön riskiä.
  • Perusterveydenhuollon ja erikoissairaanhoidon välisestä työnjaosta ja yhteistyöstä sovitaan paikallisesti. Komplisoitumattoman ADHD:n diagnosointi ja hoito voi useimmiten toteutua perusterveydenhuollossa.

Aiheen rajaus

  • Hoitosuositus koskee alle 18-vuotiaiden lasten ja nuorten ADHD:n diagnosointia, hoitoa ja kuntoutusta.
  • Suosituksessa käsitellään myös tavallisimpien samanaikaisten häiriöiden yhteydessä annettavaa hoitoa.

Tavoitteet

  • Hoitosuosituksen tavoitteena on yhtenäistää lasten ja nuorten ADHD:n diagnostiikkaa, hoitoa ja kuntoutusta ja tarjota näyttöön perustuvaa tietoa hoitoratkaisuiden tueksi.

Kohderyhmät

  • Suosituksen kohderyhmänä ovat ADHD-oireisia lapsia ja nuoria diagnosoivat, hoitavat ja kuntouttavat tahot.
  • Kohderyhmiä ovat soveltuvin osin myös ADHD-diagnoosin saaneet lapset ja nuoret perheineen, päiväkotien ja koulujen henkilökunta ja sosiaaliviranomaiset.

Määritelmät

Diagnoosikriteerit

  • Suomessa käytetään ICD-10-tautiluokituksen mukaisia aktiivisuuden ja tarkkaavuuden häiriön (F90.0) diagnoosikriteereitä (ks. sähköinen tausta-aineisto «Aktiivisuuden ja tarkkaavuuden (ADHD:n) häiriön kriteerit ICD-10:n mukaan»3), jotka ovat seuraavat:
    • Vähintään kuusi yhdeksästä tarkkaamattomuusoireesta sekä vähintään kolme viidestä yliaktiivisuus- ja kolme neljästä impulsiivisuusoireesta on kestänyt ainakin kuusi kuukautta.
    • Oireet ovat haitaksi ja lapsen kehitystasoon nähden poikkeavia.
    • Häiriö alkaa viimeistään seitsemän vuoden iässä.
    • Diagnostisten kriteerien tulee täyttyä useammassa kuin yhdessä tilanteessa, esimerkiksi tarkkaamattomuutta ja hyperaktiivisuutta tulee esiintyä sekä kotona että koulussa tai esimerkiksi vastaanotolla. Tietoa tarvitaan tavallisesti useammasta kuin yhdestä lähteestä.
    • Oireet aiheuttavat kliinisesti merkittävää ahdistusta tai sosiaalisten, opintoihin liittyvien tai ammatillisten toimintojen heikkenemistä.
    • Ei ole diagnosoitavissa seuraavia tiloja: maaninen jakso, depressiivinen jakso, ahdistuneisuushäiriö tai laaja-alaiset kehityshäiriöt.
  • Kirjallisuudessa ja tieteellisessä tutkimuskäytössä ADHD on määritelty tavallisimmin DSM (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) luokituksen diagnoosikriteerien mukaan (ks. sähköiset tausta-aineistot «Tarkkaavuus- ja yliaktiivisuushäiriön diagnostiset kriteerit DSM IV:n (Suomen psykiatriyhdistys 1997) mukaan»4, «Keskeisimmät ADHD:n diagnoosikriteereihin DSM5-luokituksessa tehdyt muutokset»5). DSM5 on tullut käyttöön toukokuussa 2013. (ks. sähköinen tausta-aineisto Keskeisimmät ADHD:n diagnoosikriteereihin DSM5-luokituksessa tehdyt muutokset «Keskeisimmät ADHD:n diagnoosikriteereihin DSM5-luokituksessa tehdyt muutokset»5).
    • ICD-10:ssä ja DSM-luokituksissa esitetyt ADHD:n määritelmät ovat keskeisiltä osin samanlaiset, mutta eroavaisuuksia on muun muassa ilmenemismuotojen määrittelemisessä ja diagnoosiin eri-ikäisiltä vaadittavien oireiden lukumäärän osalta (ks. sähköinen tausta-aineisto ADHD:n eri tautiluokitusten mukaisten diagnostisten kriteerien vertailu «ADHD:n eri tautiluokitusten mukaisten diagnostisten kriteerien vertailu»6).
    • DSM5-luokituksessa ADHD:sta esitellään kolme tarkentavaa määritelmää: yhdistetty esiintymismuoto (presentation), pääasiassa tarkkaamaton esiintymismuoto ja pääasiassa yliaktiivinen/impulsiivinen esiintymismuoto. Nämä vastaavat aiempia DSM IV:ssa esiteltyjä alatyyppejä (ks. sähköinen tausta-aineisto ADHD:n alatyypit DSM IV:n mukaan «ADHD:n alatyypit DSM IV:n mukaan»7). Lisäksi voidaan määritellä ADHD:n vaikeusaste (lievä, keskivaikea, vaikea). Tarkentavia määritelmiä voidaan käyttää Suomessakin.
    • DSM5 määrittelee, että aikuisilla (17-vuotiailla ja sitä vanhemmilla) ADHD-diagnoosiin riittää 5 tarkkaamattomuusoiretta ja 5 yliaktiivisuus-impulsiivisuusoiretta. Oirekriteereihin on myös lisätty esimerkkejä oireiden ilmenemisestä eri ikävaiheissa.
  • ICD-luokittelun uudistetun version odotetaan valmistuvan vuonna 2015.

Esiintyvyys

Etiologia

Genetiikka

Raskaudenaikaiset ympäristötekijät ja synnynnäiset rakenteelliset tekijät

Psykososiaaliset riskitekijät

Keskushermoston toiminnalliset ja rakenteelliset löydökset

Diagnostiikka

Psykologiset tutkimukset

Muut tutkimukset

  • Lapsen oireiden perusteella voidaan tarvita myös muun muassa puheterapeutin, toimintaterapeutin tai fysioterapeutin arvio. Muiden samanaikaisten kehityksellisten sairauksien arvioinnin lisäksi ADHD-ongelmia tunteva terapeutti voi toimia asiantuntijana hoitosuunnitelman teossa.

Kyselylomakkeet

Erotusdiagnostiikassa huomioitavat sairaudet ja häiriöt

ADHD:n kanssa samanaikaisesti esiintyvät häiriöt ja sairaudet

Hoito ja kuntoutus

Hoidon yleiset periaatteet

Psykososiaaliset hoidot

  • Psykososiaalisilla hoidoilla tarkoitetaan erilaisia lapselle ja hänen perheellensä annettavia lääkkeettömiä hoitoja. Tavallisimpia niistä ovat
    • vanhempainohjaus
    • tukitoimet päiväkodissa ja koulussa
    • käyttäytymishoito (behavioral treatment) kotona, päiväkodissa ja koulussa
    • psykoterapia
    • toimintaterapia
    • neuropsykologinen kuntoutus
    • ADHD-valmennus, "coaching" (ks. sähköinen tausta-aineisto «ADHD-valmennus»51)
    • sopeutumisvalmennuskurssit ja vertaistuki (ks. sähköinen tausta-aineisto «ADHD ja vertaistuki»52).

Vanhempainohjaus

Tukitoimet päivähoidossa ja koulussa

Psykoterapia

Toimintaterapia

Neuropsykologinen kuntoutus

Lääkehoito

Stimulantit

Atomoksetiini

Stimulanttien ja atomoksetiinin haittavaikutukset

Muut lääkkeet

Yhdistelmähoito

Muut hoidot

Hoito samanaikaisten sairauksien yhteydessä

ADHD:n seurannaisvaikutukset ja ennuste

Suositus hoidon porrastuksesta

  • Kun huoli keskittymättömyydestä ja ylivilkkaudesta herää, on tuki käynnistettävä heti. Ensisijainen vastuu lapsen tai nuoren tuen järjestämisestä on asuinkunnan peruspalveluilla ja lähiympäristöllä (päiväkoti, koulu tai muu vastaava taho yhteistyössä perheen kanssa).
    • Päivähoidon tai koulun tukitoimet ja tiivis yhteistyö huoltajien kanssa sekä tarvittaessa sosiaalitoimen apu ovat usein riittävä tuki.
  • Jos lapsen tai nuoren ongelmat jatkuvat tukitoimista huolimatta, hänet ohjataan lääkärin ja paikallisen moniammatillisen työryhmän arvioitavaksi.
    • Ongelmien selvittämisessä ja tukitoimien suunnittelussa on hyötyä oppilashuollon tai vastaavasta työryhmästä tai ADHD:n hoitoon erityisesti perehtyneestä työntekijästä.
  • ADHD diagnosoidaan ja hoito- ja kuntoutussuunnitelma tehdään ensisijaisesti perusterveydenhuollossa. Kuntoutussuunnitelmassa on määriteltävä vastuuhenkilöt.
    • Perusterveydenhuollon ja erikoissairaanhoidon välisestä työnjaosta ja yhteistyöstä sovitaan paikallisesti käytettävissä olevien resurssien ja osaamisen mukaisesti.
    • Erikoissairaanhoidon tulee järjestää riittävästi diagnosoinnin ja hoidon onnistumista tukevia joustavia konsultaatiomahdollisuuksia ja koulutusta.
      • Konsultaatiot voivat olla potilaskohtaisia tai säännöllisesti tapahtuvia työryhmän ohjaustapaamisia.
  • Potilas ohjataan erikoissairaanhoitoon, jos
    • perusterveydenhuollon toimenpiteet ovat osoittautuneet konsultaatiotuesta huolimatta riittämättömiksi
    • tarvitaan tarkempaa erotusdiagnostista arviointia
    • lääkehoidon aloittaminen ei onnistu perusterveydenhuollossa
    • lääkehoidon toteutuksessa on ongelmia, jotka eivät ratkea konsultaatiotuen avulla tai
    • kokonaistilanteen ongelmallisuuden vuoksi tarvitaan erikoissairaanhoidon osaamista tai usean erikoisalan yhteistyötä.
  • Erikoissairaanhoidon lähete ohjataan paikallisen hoitoketjun ja STM:n yhtenäisten kiireettömän hoidon perusteiden mukaisesti «http://www.stm.fi/»11 tai «http://www.terveysportti.fi »12 esimerkiksi
    • lastenpsykiatrille, jos lapsen oirekuvaan liittyy
      • merkittäviä tai vaikeutuvia psyykkisiä oireita, esimerkiksi vaikeita käytösongelmia, kuten aggressiivisuutta, tai
      • lapsen ja vanhemman välisiä merkittäviä vuorovaikutusongelmia.
    • nuorisopsykiatrille, jos nuoren oirekuvaan liittyy
      • merkittäviä tai vaikeutuvia psyykkisiä oireita
      • vaikeita käyttäytymisen häiriöitä tai
      • päihdeongelma.
    • lastenneurologille, jos lapsella tai nuorella
      • epäillään neurologista sairautta (esim. neurofibromatoosi, epilepsia) tai kehitysvammaisuutta.
  • Erikoissairaanhoidon vastuulla ovat erikoissairaanhoitoa tarvitsevien potilaiden erotusdiagnostiset selvittelyt, tarvittavat lisätutkimukset, vaativien lääkehoitojen aloittaminen, hoidon ja kuntoutuksen suunnittelu sekä jatkohoidosta ja -seurannasta sopiminen. Lisäksi erikoissairaanhoidon tehtäviin kuuluu riittävien konsultaatiomahdollisuuksien ja koulutuksen järjestäminen.
  • Paikallisessa hoitoketjukuvauksessa (ks. sähköinen tausta-aineisto «ADHD:n hoitoketjun luominen»85) tulee määritellä, missä ja miten
    • tukitoimet, diagnosointi, hoito, seuranta ja konsultaatiotoiminta järjestetään
    • psykososiaaliset hoidot toteutetaan (esim. vanhempainryhmät, ohjaus päiväkodin tai koulun tukitoimien suunnitteluun)
    • lääkehoito aloitetaan ja sitä seurataan.

Laatukriteerit

  • Jokaisen ADHD-diagnoosin saaneen lapsen tai nuoren pitää saada yksilöllisesti suunniteltua, vaikuttavaksi todettua hoitoa, joka sisältää myös perheen jaksamista tukevia hoitomuotoja.
  • Työryhmä ehdottaa, että ADHD-potilaiden hoidon laadun arvioimisessa käytetään seuraavia kriteerikysymyksiä:
    • Onko sairaanhoitopiirissä paikallinen ADHD:n hoito-ohjelma, jossa määritellään diagnostiikan, psykososiaalisten hoitomuotojen, lääkehoidon, perheintervention ja potilasohjauksen toimintalinjat sekä hoidon jatkuvuuden turvaaminen hoitoketjussa?
      • Miten toteutumista seurataan?
    • Varmistetaanko diagnosoinnin asianmukaisuus käyttämällä yhtenäistä tutkimusrunkoa?
    • Onko ADHD:n takia hoidossa olevilla ajan tasalla oleva kirjallinen hoito- ja kuntoutussuunnitelma, joka on potilaan ja perheen tiedossa?
      • Tarkistetaanko suunnitelmaa säännöllisesti vähintään kerran vuodessa?
    • Onko ADHD:n takia hoidossa oleville tarjottu potilas- ja omaisneuvontaa, joka sisältää kirjallista materiaalia?
    • Onko ADHD:n takia hoidossa oleville tarjottu psykososiaalisia hoitomuotoja?
      • Onko perheille tarjottu mahdollisuutta osallistua vanhempainohjaukseen?
      • Onko päivähoidolle ja kouluille tarjottu riittävää ohjausta tukitoimien toteutukseen?
    • Onko ADHD:n takia hoidossa oleville tarjottu lääkehoitoa?
    • Onko hoidon seurannassa käytetty (strukturoituja) mittareita (kyselylomakkeet tms.) oireiden ja hoidon tehon arvioimiseksi?
    • Onko hoidon jatkuvuus eri ikävaiheissa järjestetty (lapset, nuoret, aikuiset)?

Suomalaisen Lääkäriseuran Duodecimin, Suomen Lastenneurologinen yhdistys ry:n, Suomen Nuorisopsykiatrisen yhdistyksen ja Suomen Lastenpsykiatriyhdistyksen asettama työryhmä

ADHD (aktiivisuuden ja tarkkaavuuden häiriö, lapset ja nuoret) -suosituksen historiatiedot «ADHD (aktiivisuuden ja tarkkaavuuden häiriö, lapset ja nuoret), Käypä hoito -suosituksen historiatiedot»86

Puheenjohtaja:

Irma Moilanen, Oulun yliopiston lastenpsykiatrian professori emerita; Tampereen yliopiston lasten- ja nuorisopsykiatrian dosentti, Vaativan erityistason perheterapeutti

Jäsenet:

Anita Puustjärvi, lastenpsykiatrian ylilääkäri, lastenpsykoterapian erityispätevyys; Etelä-Savon sairaanhoitopiiri, Mikkeli

Tanja Laukkala, LT, psykiatrian ylilääkäri; Sotilaslääketieteen Keskus (Käypä hoito -toimittaja)

Vesa Närhi, PsT, neuropsykologian erikoispsykologi; Niilo Mäki Instituutti, Kehitysvammaliitto

Päivi Olsén, LT, lastentautien ja lastenneurologian erikoislääkäri; OYS

Leena Pihlakoski, lastenpsykiatrian apulaisylilääkäri, psykoterapian erityispätevyys; Lastenpsykiatrian klinikka, Pirkanmaan sairaanhoitopiiri, TAYS

Anu Raevuori, LT, nuorisopsykiatriaan erikoistuva lääkäri, terveydenhuollon erikoislääkäri, erikoistuva lääkäri HUS:n nuorisopsykiatrian yksikkö, Hjelt-instituutti, Kansanterveystieteen osasto

Liisa Virkkunen, lastentautien erikoislääkäri, kuntoutuksen erityispätevyys, kuntoutuspäällikkö; Tervaväylän koulu, Oulu

Arja Voutilainen, LKT, lastentautien ja lastenneurologian erikoislääkäri, hallinnon pätevyys, apulaisylilääkäri; HYKS

Sidonnaisuudet

Tanja Laukkala: Pitänyt toistuvasti luentoja lääkealan yrityksen järjestämissä koulutustilaisuuksissa (Eli Lilly).

Irma Moilanen: Pitänyt luennon lääkealan yrityksen rahoittamassa kongressissa (Janssen-Cilag). Toiminut puheenjohtajana lääkealan yrityksen koulutustilaisuudessa (Algol).

Vesa Närhi: Ei sidonnaisuuksia.

Päivi Olsen: tutkijalääkärinä lääkeyhtiön tekemässä lääketutkimuksessa (Pfizer Oy), luennoitsijana (Swedish Orphan Biovitrum, UCB), lääkeyhtiön kustantamana pohjoismaisessa epilepsiakongressissa (UCB)

Leena Pihlakoski: Pitänyt luentoja lääkealan yritysten koulutuksissa (Janssen-Cilag, Eli Lilly, Swedish Orphan Biovitrum Oy). Toiminut lääkealan yrityksen asiantuntijana (Janssen-Cilag, Eli Lilly). Ulkomaan kongressimatka lääkealan yritysten rahoittamana (Janssen-Cilag, Shire).

Anita Puustjärvi: Pitänyt luentoja lääkealan yritysten koulutuksissa (Janssen-Cilaq Oy, Oy Eli Lilly Ab, Algol Pharma Oy, Swedish Orphan Biovitrum Ab). Osallistunut koulutuksen suunnitteluun (Oy Swedish Orphan Biovitrum Ab, ADHD-liitto).Ollut ulkomaan kongressimatkalla lääkealan yrityksen rahoittamana (Janssen-Cilaq Oy). Toiminut lääkealan yritysten asiantuntijana potilasmateriaalin laadinnassa (Janssen-Cilaq Oy, Eli Lilly Finland Ab, Algol Pharma Oy).

Anu Raevuori: Osallistunut ulkomaiseen kongressiin lääkealan yrityksen kustantamana (Janssen-Cilag). Vastaanottanut lääkealan yritykseltä tutkimusapurahan (Lundbeck Oy).

Liisa Virkkunen: Osallistunut lääkealan yrityksen järjestämään ulkomaiseen kongressiin (Janssen-Cilaq).

Arja Voutilainen: Osallistunut ulkomaiselle AACAP:n järjestämälle kurssille lääkealan yrityksen kustantamana (Janssen-Cilag). Toiminut lääkealan yrityksen asiantuntijana (Janssen-Cilag). Osallistunut tutkimusryhmään, jonka työtä on tukenut Lilly Säätiö.

Vastuun rajaus

Käypä hoito -suositukset ovat parhaiden asiantuntijoiden laatimia yhteenvetoja yksittäisten sairauksien diagnostiikan ja hoidon vaikuttavuudesta. Ne eivät korvaa lääkärin tai muun terveydenhuollon ammattilaisen omaa arviota yksittäisen potilaan parhaasta mahdollisesta diagnostiikasta ja hoidosta hoitopäätöksiä tehtäessä.

Tiedonhakukäytäntö

Systemaattinen kirjallisuushaku on hoitosuosituksen perusta. Lue lisää artikkelista khk00007

Kirjallisuutta

  1. Uhari M. Biostatistiikan taskutieto. 2. uudistettu painos. Kustannus Oy Duodecim 2002.
  2. Polanczyk G, de Lima MS, Horta BL ym. The worldwide prevalence of ADHD: a systematic review and metaregression analysis. Am J Psychiatry 2007;164:942-8 «PMID: 17541055»PubMed
  3. Almqvist F. Aktiivisuuden ja tarkkaavuuden häiriöt. Kirjassa: Moilanen I, Räsänen E, Tamminen T, Almqvist F, Piha J, Kumpulainen K (toim.) Lasten- ja nuorisopsykiatria. Kustannus Oy Duodecim 2004:240-9.
  4. Smalley SL, McGough JJ, Moilanen IK ym. Prevalence and psychiatric comorbidity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in an adolescent Finnish population. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2007;46:1575-83 «PMID: 18030079»PubMed
  5. Skounti M, Philalithis A, Galanakis E. Variations in prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder worldwide. Eur J Pediatr 2007;166:117-23 «PMID: 17033803»PubMed
  6. Ramtekkar UP, Reiersen AM, Todorov AA ym. Sex and age differences in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and diagnoses: implications for DSM-V and ICD-11. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2010;49:217-28.e1-3 «PMID: 20410711»PubMed
  7. Rucklidge JJ. Gender differences in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Psychiatr Clin North Am 2010;33:357-73 «PMID: 20385342»PubMed
  8. Döpfner M, Breuer D, Wille N ym. How often do children meet ICD-10/DSM-IV criteria of attention deficit-/hyperactivity disorder and hyperkinetic disorder? Parent-based prevalence rates in a national sample--results of the BELLA study. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2008;17 Suppl 1:59-70 «PMID: 19132305»PubMed
  9. Hurtig T, Ebeling H, Taanila A ym. ADHD symptoms and subtypes: relationship between childhood and adolescent symptoms. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2007;46:1605-13 «PMID: 18030082»PubMed
  10. Pineda DA, Lopera F, Palacio JD ym. Prevalence estimations of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: differential diagnoses and comorbidities in a Colombian sample. Int J Neurosci 2003;113:49-71 «PMID: 12691001»PubMed
  11. Nolan EE, Gadow KD, Sprafkin J. Teacher reports of DSM-IV ADHD, ODD, and CD symptoms in schoolchildren. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2001;40:241-9 «PMID: 11211374»PubMed
  12. Faraone SV, Biederman J, Mick E. The age-dependent decline of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a meta-analysis of follow-up studies. Psychol Med 2006;36:159-65 «PMID: 16420712»PubMed
  13. Neuman RJ, Lobos E, Reich W ym. Prenatal smoking exposure and dopaminergic genotypes interact to cause a severe ADHD subtype. Biol Psychiatry 2007;61:1320-8 «PMID: 17157268»PubMed
  14. Laucht M, Skowronek MH, Becker K ym. Interacting effects of the dopamine transporter gene and psychosocial adversity on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms among 15-year-olds from a high-risk community sample. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2007;64:585-90 «PMID: 17485610»PubMed
  15. Biederman J. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a selective overview. Biol Psychiatry 2005;57:1215-20 «PMID: 15949990»PubMed
  16. Boomsma DI, Saviouk V, Hottenga JJ ym. Genetic epidemiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD index) in adults. PLoS One 2010;5:e10621 «PMID: 20485550»PubMed
  17. Cole J, Ball HA, Martin NC ym. Genetic overlap between measures of hyperactivity/inattention and mood in children and adolescents. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2009;48:1094-101 «PMID: 19797986»PubMed
  18. Sharp SI, McQuillin A, Gurling HM. Genetics of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Neuropharmacology 2009;57:590-600 «PMID: 19715710»PubMed
  19. Ronald A, Edelson LR, Asherson P ym. Exploring the relationship between autistic-like traits and ADHD behaviors in early childhood: findings from a community twin study of 2-year-olds. J Abnorm Child Psychol 2010;38:185-96 «PMID: 19908138»PubMed
  20. Nadder TS, Silberg JL, Eaves LJ ym. Genetic effects on ADHD symptomatology in 7- to 13-year-old twins: results from a telephone survey. Behav Genet 1998;28:83-99 «PMID: 9583234»PubMed
  21. Nikolas MA, Burt SA. Genetic and environmental influences on ADHD symptom dimensions of inattention and hyperactivity: a meta-analysis. J Abnorm Psychol 2010;119:1-17 «PMID: 20141238»PubMed
  22. Coghill D, Banaschewski T. The genetics of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Expert Rev Neurother 2009;9:1547-65 «PMID: 19831843»PubMed
  23. Faraone SV, Mick E. Molecular genetics of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Psychiatr Clin North Am 2010;33:159-80 «PMID: 20159345»PubMed
  24. Loo SK, Fisher SE, Francks C ym. Genome-wide scan of reading ability in affected sibling pairs with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: unique and shared genetic effects. Mol Psychiatry 2004;9:485-93 «PMID: 14625563»PubMed
  25. Nigg J, Nikolas M, Burt SA. Measured gene-by-environment interaction in relation to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2010;49:863-73 «PMID: 20732623»PubMed
  26. Becker K, El-Faddagh M, Schmidt MH ym. Interaction of dopamine transporter genotype with prenatal smoke exposure on ADHD symptoms. J Pediatr 2008;152:263-9 «PMID: 18206700»PubMed
  27. Langley K, Turic D, Rice F ym. Testing for gene x environment interaction effects in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and associated antisocial behavior. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 2008;147B:49-53 «PMID: 17579368»PubMed
  28. Gillberg C. Clinical Child Neuropsychiatry. Cambridge University Press 1995.
  29. Bhutta AT, Cleves MA, Casey PH ym. Cognitive and behavioral outcomes of school-aged children who were born preterm: a meta-analysis. JAMA 2002;288:728-37 «PMID: 12169077»PubMed
  30. Langley K, Rice F, van den Bree MB ym. Maternal smoking during pregnancy as an environmental risk factor for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder behaviour. A review. Minerva Pediatr 2005;57:359-71 «PMID: 16402008»PubMed
  31. Biederman J, Petty CR, Bhide PG ym. Does exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy affect the clinical features of ADHD? Results from a controlled study. World J Biol Psychiatry 2011 «PMID: 21545244»PubMed
  32. Knopik VS, Sparrow EP, Madden PA ym. Contributions of parental alcoholism, prenatal substance exposure, and genetic transmission to child ADHD risk: a female twin study. Psychol Med 2005;35:625-35 «PMID: 15918339»PubMed
  33. Brookes KJ, Mill J, Guindalini C ym. A common haplotype of the dopamine transporter gene associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and interacting with maternal use of alcohol during pregnancy. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2006;63:74-81 «PMID: 16389200»PubMed
  34. Ackerman JP, Riggins T, Black MM. A review of the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure among school-aged children. Pediatrics 2010;125:554-65 «PMID: 20142293»PubMed
  35. Noland JS, Singer LT, Short EJ ym. Prenatal drug exposure and selective attention in preschoolers. Neurotoxicol Teratol 2005;27:429-38 «PMID: 15939203»PubMed
  36. Huizink AC, Mulder EJ. Maternal smoking, drinking or cannabis use during pregnancy and neurobehavioral and cognitive functioning in human offspring. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2006;30:24-41 «PMID: 16095697»PubMed
  37. Elgen I, Bruaroy S, Laegreid LM. Complexity of foetal alcohol or drug neuroimpairments. Acta Paediatr 2007;96:1730-3 «PMID: 17971190»PubMed
  38. Talge NM, Neal C, Glover V ym. Antenatal maternal stress and long-term effects on child neurodevelopment: how and why? J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2007;48:245-61 «PMID: 17355398»PubMed
  39. Olson S. Developmental perspectives. Kirjassa: Hyperactivity and attention disorders of childhood. Sandberg S (toim.) 2. painos. United Kingdom: Cambridge. University Press 2002.
  40. Sandberg S. Pychosocial contributions. Kirjassa: Hyperactivity and attention disorders of childhood. Sandberg S (toim.) 2. painos. United Kingdom: Cambridge. University Press 2002.
  41. Taylor E. Developmental neuropsychopathology of attention deficit and impulsiveness. Dev Psychopathol 1999;11:607-28 «PMID: 10532627»PubMed
  42. Stevens SE, Sonuga-Barke EJ, Kreppner JM ym. Inattention/overactivity following early severe institutional deprivation: presentation and associations in early adolescence. J Abnorm Child Psychol 2008;36:385-98 «PMID: 17965931»PubMed
  43. Johnston C, Mash EJ. Families of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: review and recommendations for future research. Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev 2001;4:183-207 «PMID: 11783738»PubMed
  44. Chronis AM, Lahey BB, Pelham WE Jr ym. Maternal depression and early positive parenting predict future conduct problems in young children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Dev Psychol 2007;43:70-82 «PMID: 17201509»PubMed
  45. Barkley RA. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Handbook for Diagnosis and Treatment.3. painos. New York: The Guilford Press 2006.
  46. Deault LC. A systematic review of parenting in relation to the development of comorbidities and functional impairments in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Child Psychiatry Hum Dev 2010;41:168-92 «PMID: 19768532»PubMed
  47. Ostrander R, Herman KC. Potential cognitive, parenting, and developmental mediators of the relationship between ADHD and depression. J Consult Clin Psychol 2006;74:89-98 «PMID: 16551146»PubMed
  48. Solanto MV, Abikoff H, Sonuga-Barke E ym. The ecological validity of delay aversion and response inhibition as measures of impulsivity in AD/HD: a supplement to the NIMH multimodal treatment study of AD/HD. J Abnorm Child Psychol 2001;29:215-28 «PMID: 11411784»PubMed
  49. ADHD: Clinical Practice Guideline for the Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adolescents. SUBCOMMITTEE ON ATTENTION-DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER, STEERING COMMITTEE ON QUALITY IMPROVEMENT AND MANAGEMENT. Pediatrics; originally published online October 16, 2011; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2011-2654, http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/early/2011/10/14/peds.2011-2654 «http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/early/2011/10/14/peds.2011-2654»13
  50. Taylor E, Döpfner M, Sergeant J ym. European clinical guidelines for hyperkinetic disorder -- first upgrade. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2004;13 Suppl 1:I7-30 «PMID: 15322953»PubMed
  51. Collett BR, Ohan JL, Myers KM. Ten-year review of rating scales. V: scales assessing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2003;42:1015-37 «PMID: 12960702»PubMed
  52. Döpfner M, Steinhausen HC, Coghill D ym. Cross-cultural reliability and validity of ADHD assessed by the ADHD Rating Scale in a pan-European study. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2006;15 Suppl 1:I46-55 «PMID: 17177016»PubMed
  53. Zhang S, Faries DE, Vowles M ym. ADHD Rating Scale IV: psychometric properties from a multinational study as a clinician-administered instrument. Int J Methods Psychiatr Res 2005;14:186-201 «PMID: 16395872»PubMed
  54. Klenberg L, Jämsä S, Häyrinen T ym. The Attention and Executive Function Rating Inventory (ATTEX): Psychometric properties and clinical utility in diagnosing ADHD subtypes. Scand J Psychol 2010;51:439-48 «PMID: 20338019»PubMed
  55. Ivanova MY, Dobrean A, Dopfner M ym. Testing the 8-syndrome structure of the child behavior checklist in 30 societies. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 2007;36:405-17 «PMID: 17658984»PubMed
  56. Hudziak JJ, Copeland W, Stanger C ym. Screening for DSM-IV externalizing disorders with the Child Behavior Checklist: a receiver-operating characteristic analysis. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2004;45:1299-307 «PMID: 15335349»PubMed
  57. Chen WJ, Faraone SV, Biederman J ym. Diagnostic accuracy of the Child Behavior Checklist scales for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a receiver-operating characteristic analysis. J Consult Clin Psychol 1994;62:1017-25 «PMID: 7806710»PubMed
  58. Biederman J, Faraone SV, Doyle A ym. Convergence of the Child Behavior Checklist with structured interview-based psychiatric diagnoses of ADHD children with and without comorbidity. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 1993;34:1241-51 «PMID: 8245144»PubMed
  59. Hurtig T, Taanila A, Ebeling H ym. Attention and behavioural problems of Finnish adolescents may be related to the family environment. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2005;14:471-8 «PMID: 16341505»PubMed
  60. Gillberg C, Gillberg IC, Rasmussen P ym. Co-existing disorders in ADHD -- implications for diagnosis and intervention. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2004;13 Suppl 1:I80-92 «PMID: 15322959»PubMed
  61. Mangeot SD, Miller LJ, McIntosh DN ym. Sensory modulation dysfunction in children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Dev Med Child Neurol 2001;43:399-406 «PMID: 11409829»PubMed
  62. Kirby A, Salmon G, Edward L. Should Children with ADHD be Routinely Screened for Motor Coordination Problems? The role of the Paediatric Occupational Therapist. BJOT 2007;70:483-6
  63. Chu S, Reynolds F. Occupational Therapy for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Part 2: a Multicentre Evaluation of an Assessment and Treatment Package. Therapy 2007;70:439-48
  64. Riccio CA, Hynd GW. Developmental language disorders in children: Relationships with learning disability and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. School Psych Rev 1993,22:696-709
  65. Biederman J, Newcorn J, Sprich S. Comorbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with conduct, depressive, anxiety, and other disorders. Am J Psychiatry 1991;148:564-77 «PMID: 2018156»PubMed
  66. McGee R, Prior M, Willams S ym. The long-term significance of teacher-rated hyperactivity and reading ability in childhood: findings from two longitudinal studies. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2002;43:1004-17 «PMID: 12455922»PubMed
  67. Kadesjö B, Gillberg C. The comorbidity of ADHD in the general population of Swedish school-age children. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2001;42:487-92 «PMID: 11383964»PubMed
  68. Santosh PJ, Mijovic A. Social impairment in Hyperkinetic Disorder - relationship to psychopathology and environmental stressors. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2004;13:141-50 «PMID: 15254841»PubMed
  69. Law SF, Schachar RJ. Do typical clinical doses of methylphenidate cause tics in children treated for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder? J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1999;38:944-51 «PMID: 10434485»PubMed
  70. Comings DE, Comings BG. A controlled study of Tourette syndrome. I. Attention-deficit disorder, learning disorders, and school problems. Am J Hum Genet 1987;41:701-41 «PMID: 2890294»PubMed
  71. Freeman RD, Fast DK, Burd L ym. An international perspective on Tourette syndrome: selected findings from 3,500 individuals in 22 countries. Dev Med Child Neurol 2000;42:436-47 «PMID: 10972415»PubMed
  72. Kadesjö B, Gillberg C. Tourette's disorder: epidemiology and comorbidity in primary school children. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2000;39:548-55 «PMID: 10802971»PubMed
  73. Robertson MM. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, tics and Tourette's syndrome: the relationship and treatment implications. A commentary. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2006;15:1-11 «PMID: 16514504»PubMed
  74. Singer HS, Rosenberg LA. Development of behavioral and emotional problems in Tourette syndrome. Pediatr Neurol 1989;5:41-4 «PMID: 2712938»PubMed
  75. Spencer T, Biederman J, Harding M ym. Disentangling the overlap between Tourette's disorder and ADHD. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 1998;39:1037-44 «PMID: 9804036»PubMed
  76. Sukhodolsky DG, Scahill L, Zhang H ym. Disruptive behavior in children with Tourette's syndrome: association with ADHD comorbidity, tic severity, and functional impairment. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2003;42:98-105 «PMID: 12500082»PubMed
  77. Cortese S, Faraone SV, Konofal E ym. Sleep in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: meta-analysis of subjective and objective studies. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2009;48:894-908 «PMID: 19625983»PubMed
  78. Chertin B, Koulikov D, Abu-Arafeh W ym. Treatment of nocturnal enuresis in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. J Urol 2007;178:1744-7 «PMID: 17707010»PubMed
  79. Johnston BD, Wright JA. Attentional dysfunction in children with encopresis. J Dev Behav Pediatr 1993;14:381-5 «PMID: 8126230»PubMed
  80. Corkum P, Tannock R, Moldofsky H. Sleep disturbances in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1998;37:637-46 «PMID: 9628084»PubMed
  81. Lane WM, Robson M ym. Enuresis in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. South Med J 1997;90:503-5
  82. Waring ME, Lapane KL. Overweight in children and adolescents in relation to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: results from a national sample. Pediatrics 2008;122:e1-6 «PMID: 18595954»PubMed
  83. Chen AY, Kim SE, Houtrow AJ ym. Prevalence of obesity among children with chronic conditions. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2010;18:210-3 «PMID: 19521350»PubMed
  84. Spencer TJ, Biederman J, Mick E. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: diagnosis, lifespan, comorbidities, and neurobiology. J Pediatr Psychol 2007;32:631-42 «PMID: 17556405»PubMed
  85. Steinhausen HC, Nøvik TS, Baldursson G ym. Co-existing psychiatric problems in ADHD in the ADORE cohort. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2006;15 Suppl 1:I25-9 «PMID: 17177012»PubMed
  86. Mannuzza S, Klein RG, Abikoff H ym. Significance of childhood conduct problems to later development of conduct disorder among children with ADHD: a prospective follow-up study. J Abnorm Child Psychol 2004;32:565-73 «PMID: 15500034»PubMed
  87. Wilens TE, Biederman J, Spencer TJ. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder across the lifespan. Annu Rev Med 2002;53:113-31 «PMID: 11818466»PubMed
  88. Banaschewski T, Hollis C, Oosterlaan J ym. Towards an understanding of unique and shared pathways in the psychopathophysiology of ADHD. Dev Sci 2005;8:132-40 «PMID: 15720371»PubMed
  89. Thapar A, Langley K, Owen MJ ym. Advances in genetic findings on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Psychol Med 2007;37:1681-92 «PMID: 17506925»PubMed
  90. Connor DF, Steeber J, McBurnett K. A review of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder complicated by symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder. J Dev Behav Pediatr 2010;31:427-40 «PMID: 20535081»PubMed
  91. Steinhausen HC. The heterogeneity of causes and courses of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2009;120:392-9 «PMID: 19807721»PubMed
  92. Drabick DA, Gadow KD, Sprafkin J. Co-occurrence of conduct disorder and depression in a clinic-based sample of boys with ADHD. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2006;47:766-74 «PMID: 16898990»PubMed
  93. Pliszka SR. Psychiatric comorbidities in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: implications for management. Paediatr Drugs 2003;5:741-50 «PMID: 14580223»PubMed
  94. Angold A, Costello EJ, Erkanli A. Comorbidity. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 1999;40:57-87 «PMID: 10102726»PubMed
  95. March JS, Swanson JM, Arnold LE ym. Anxiety as a predictor and outcome variable in the multimodal treatment study of children with ADHD (MTA). J Abnorm Child Psychol 2000;28:527-41 «PMID: 11104315»PubMed
  96. Schatz DB, Rostain AL. ADHD with comorbid anxiety: a review of the current literature. J Atten Disord 2006;10:141-9 «PMID: 17085624»PubMed
  97. Spencer T, Biederman J, Wilens T. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and comorbidity. Pediatr Clin North Am 1999;46:915-27, vii «PMID: 10570696»PubMed
  98. Geller DA, Biederman J, Faraone S ym. Re-examining comorbidity of Obsessive Compulsive and Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder using an empirically derived taxonomy. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2004;13:83-91 «PMID: 15103533»PubMed
  99. Bradshaw JL, Sheppard DM. The neurodevelopmental frontostriatal disorders: evolutionary adaptiveness and anomalous lateralization. Brain Lang 2000;73:297-320 «PMID: 10856179»PubMed
  100. Ford JD, Racusin R, Ellis CG ym. Child maltreatment, other trauma exposure, and posttraumatic symptomatology among children with oppositional defiant and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders. Child Maltreat 2000;5:205-17 «PMID: 11232267»PubMed
  101. Famularo R, Fenton T, Kinscherff R ym. Psychiatric comorbidity in childhood post traumatic stress disorder. Child Abuse Negl 1996;20:953-61 «PMID: 8902292»PubMed
  102. Adler LA, Kunz M, Chua HC ym. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adult patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD): is ADHD a vulnerability factor? J Atten Disord 2004;8:11-6 «PMID: 15669598»PubMed
  103. Daud A, Rydelius PA. Comorbidity/overlapping between ADHD and PTSD in relation to IQ among children of traumatized/non-traumatized parents. J Atten Disord 2009;13:188-96 «PMID: 19395643»PubMed
  104. Weinstein D, Staffelbach D, Biaggio M. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder: differential diagnosis in childhood sexual abuse. Clin Psychol Rev 2000;20:359-78 «PMID: 10779899»PubMed
  105. Biederman J, Ball SW, Monuteaux MC ym. Are girls with ADHD at risk for eating disorders? Results from a controlled, five-year prospective study. J Dev Behav Pediatr 2007;28:302-7 «PMID: 17700082»PubMed
  106. Biederman J, Petty CR, Monuteaux MC ym. Adult psychiatric outcomes of girls with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: 11-year follow-up in a longitudinal case-control study. Am J Psychiatry 2010;167:409-17 «PMID: 20080984»PubMed
  107. Surman CB, Randall ET, Biederman J. Association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and bulimia nervosa: analysis of 4 case-control studies. J Clin Psychiatry 2006;67:351-4 «PMID: 16649819»PubMed
  108. Blackman GL, Ostrander R, Herman KC. Children with ADHD and depression: a multisource, multimethod assessment of clinical, social, and academic functioning. J Atten Disord 2005;8:195-207 «PMID: 16110050»PubMed
  109. Volk HE, Neuman RJ, Todd RD. A systematic evaluation of ADHD and comorbid psychopathology in a population-based twin sample. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2005;44:768-75 «PMID: 16034278»PubMed
  110. Daviss WB. A review of co-morbid depression in pediatric ADHD: etiology, phenomenology, and treatment. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2008;18:565-71 «PMID: 19108661»PubMed
  111. James A, Lai FH, Dahl C. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and suicide: a review of possible associations. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2004;110:408-15 «PMID: 15521824»PubMed
  112. Diler RS, Daviss WB, Lopez A ym. Differentiating major depressive disorder in youths with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. J Affect Disord 2007;102:125-30 «PMID: 17276513»PubMed
  113. Tamminen T. Lapsen masennus. Duodecim 2010;126:627-33 «http://www.duodecimlehti.fi/web/guest/etusivu/artikkeli?tunnus=duo98700»14
  114. Kowatch RA, Fristad M, Birmaher B ym. Treatment guidelines for children and adolescents with bipolar disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2005;44:213-35 «PMID: 15725966»PubMed
  115. Sachs GS, Baldassano CF, Truman CJ ym. Comorbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with early- and late-onset bipolar disorder. Am J Psychiatry 2000;157:466-8 «PMID: 10698829»PubMed
  116. Puustjärvi A, Kumpulainen K. Kaksisuuntainen mielialahäiriö lapsuudessa. Duodecim 2008;124:2095-101 «http://www.duodecimlehti.fi/web/guest/etusivu/artikkeli?tunnus=duo97505»15
  117. Luckenbaugh DA, Findling RL, Leverich GS ym. Earliest symptoms discriminating juvenile-onset bipolar illness from ADHD. Bipolar Disord 2009;11:441-51 «PMID: 19500097»PubMed
  118. Welham J, Scott J, Williams GM ym. The antecedents of non-affective psychosis in a birth-cohort, with a focus on measures related to cognitive ability, attentional dysfunction and speech problems. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2010;121:273-9 «PMID: 19694626»PubMed
  119. Mulet B, Valero J, Gutiérrez-Zotes A ym. Sustained and selective attention deficits as vulnerability markers to psychosis. Eur Psychiatry 2007;22:171-6 «PMID: 17127037»PubMed
  120. Heinimaa M, Salokangas RK, Ristkari T ym. PROD-screen--a screen for prodromal symptoms of psychosis. Int J Methods Psychiatr Res 2003;12:92-104 «PMID: 12830303»PubMed
  121. Salokangas R, Heinimaa M, Suomela T ym. Psykoosialttiuden arvioinnin opas. Kustannus Oy Duodecim 2002.
  122. Biederman J, Monuteaux MC, Mick E ym. Young adult outcome of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a controlled 10-year follow-up study. Psychol Med 2006;36:167-79 «PMID: 16420713»PubMed
  123. Kessler RC, Adler L, Barkley R ym. The prevalence and correlates of adult ADHD in the United States: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Am J Psychiatry 2006;163:716-23 «PMID: 16585449»PubMed
  124. Kalbag AS, Levin FR. Adult ADHD and substance abuse: diagnostic and treatment issues. Subst Use Misuse 2005;40:1955-81, 2043-8 «PMID: 16282088»PubMed
  125. Wilens TE. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and substance use disorders. Am J Psychiatry 2006;163:2059-63 «PMID: 17151154»PubMed
  126. Wilens TE, Adamson J, Sgambati S ym. Do individuals with ADHD self-medicate with cigarettes and substances of abuse? Results from a controlled family study of ADHD. Am J Addict 2007;16 Suppl 1:14-21; quiz 22-3 «PMID: 17453603»PubMed
  127. McDermott S, Mani S, Krishnaswami S. A population-based analysis of specific behaviour problems associated with childhood seizures. J Epilepsy 1995;8:110-8
  128. Dunn DW, Austin JK, Harezlak J ym. ADHD and epilepsy in childhood. Dev Med Child Neurol 2003;45:50-4 «PMID: 12549755»PubMed
  129. Hesdorffer DC, Ludvigsson P, Olafsson E ym. ADHD as a risk factor for incident unprovoked seizures and epilepsy in children. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2004;61:731-6 «PMID: 15237085»PubMed, «http://archpsyc.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=482029»16
  130. Parisi P, Moavero R, Verrotti A ym. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children with epilepsy. Brain Dev 2010;32:10-6 «PMID: 19369016»PubMed
  131. Antshel KM, Phillips MH, Gordon M ym. Is ADHD a valid disorder in children with intellectual delays? Clin Psychol Rev 2006;26:555-72 «PMID: 16687197»PubMed
  132. Deutsch CK, Dube WV, McIlvane WJ. Attention deficits, Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and intellectual disabilities. Dev Disabil Res Rev 2008;14:285-92 «PMID: 19072752»PubMed
  133. Pliszka S, AACAP Work Group on Quality Issues. Practice parameter for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2007;46:894-921 «PMID: 17581453»PubMed
  134. CRD:n strukturoitu abstrakti: A systematic review and economic model of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of methylphenidate, dexamfetamine and atomoxetine for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. DARE 2010;4
  135. Majewicz-Hefley A, Carlson JS. A meta-analysis of combined treatments for children diagnosed with ADHD. J Atten Disord 2007;10:239-50 «PMID: 17242418»PubMed
  136. Young S, Amarasinghe JM. Practitioner review: Non-pharmacological treatments for ADHD: a lifespan approach. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2010;51:116-33 «PMID: 19891745»PubMed
  137. Brown RT, Amler RW, Freeman WS ym. Treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: overview of the evidence. Pediatrics 2005;115:e749-57 «PMID: 15930203»PubMed
  138. Wells KC, Chi TC, Hinshaw SP ym. Treatment-related changes in objectively measured parenting behaviors in the multimodal treatment study of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Consult Clin Psychol 2006;74:649-57 «PMID: 16881772»PubMed
  139. Webster-Stratton CH, Reid MJ, Beauchaine T. Combining parent and child training for young children with ADHD. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 2011;40:191-203 «PMID: 21391017»PubMed
  140. Pelham WE Jr, Wheeler T, Chronis A. Empirically supported psychosocial treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. J Clin Child Psychol 1998;27:190-205 «PMID: 9648036»PubMed
  141. Sonuga-Barke EJ, Daley D, Thompson M ym. Parent-based therapies for preschool attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a randomized, controlled trial with a community sample. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2001;40:402-8 «PMID: 11314565»PubMed
  142. Perusopetuksen opetussuunnitelman perusteiden muutokset ja täydennykset 2010. Opetushallitus. Määräykset ja ohjeet 2011:20 http://www.oph.fi/download/132882_Perusopetuksen_opetussuunnitelman_perusteiden_muutokset_ja_taydennykset2010.pdf. «http://www.oph.fi/download/132882_Perusopetuksen_opetussuunnitelman_perusteiden_muutokset_ja_taydennykset2010.pdf»4
  143. Pfiffner LJ, Yee Mikami A, Huang-Pollock C ym. A randomized, controlled trial of integrated home-school behavioral treatment for ADHD, predominantly inattentive type. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2007;46:1041-50 «PMID: 17667482»PubMed
  144. Pelham WE Jr, Fabiano GA. Evidence-based psychosocial treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 2008;37:184-214 «PMID: 18444058»PubMed
  145. Brown RT, Wynne ME, Medenis R. Methylphenidate and cognitive therapy: a comparison of treatment approaches with hyperactive boys. J Abnorm Child Psychol 1985;13:69-87 «PMID: 3973253»PubMed
  146. Muñoz-Solomando A, Kendall T, Whittington CJ. Cognitive behavioural therapy for children and adolescents. Curr Opin Psychiatry 2008;21:332-7 «PMID: 18520736»PubMed
  147. Moderators and mediators of treatment response for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: the Multimodal Treatment Study of children with Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1999;56:1088-96 «PMID: 10591284»PubMed
  148. Anastopoulos AD. Facilitating parental understanding and management of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Kirjassa: Cognitive Therapy with Children and Adolescents. Reinecke MA, Dattilio FM, Freeman A (toim.). New York, The Guilford Press, 1996:327-43.
  149. Stallard Paul. Ajattelemalla iloa. Kognitiivista käyttäytymisterapiaa lapsille ja nuorille. Työntekijän opas, työkirja. Psykologien kustannus 2010.
  150. Salomonsson B. Some psychoanalytic viewpoints on neuropsychiatric disorders in children. Int J Psychoanal 2004;85:117-35 «PMID: 15005897»PubMed
  151. Wright JL. Psychoanalysis in conjunction with medication: a clinical research opportunity. J Am Psychoanal Assoc 2006;54:833-55 «PMID: 17009657»PubMed
  152. Gilmore K. A psychoanalytic perspective on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Am Psychoanal Assoc 2000;48:1259-93 «PMID: 11212190»PubMed
  153. Bürgin D, Steck B. [Psychoanalytic psychotherapy and the ADHD-triad (impulsivity, hyperactivity and attention deficit disorder)]. Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr 2007;56:310-32 «PMID: 17508702»PubMed
  154. du Bois R. [Psychodynamic models about the origins, internal processing and treatment of ADHD]. Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr 2007;56:300-9 «PMID: 17508701»PubMed
  155. 155.Chu S, Reynolds F. Occupational therapy for children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Part 1: a Delineation model of practice. BJOG 2007;70:372-83.
  156. Miller LJ, Coll JR, Schoen SA. A randomized controlled pilot study of the effectiveness of occupational therapy for children with sensory modulation disorder. Am J Occup Ther 2007;61:228-38 «PMID: 17436845»PubMed
  157. Svanborg P, Thernlund G, Gustafsson PA ym. Efficacy and safety of atomoxetine as add-on to psychoeducation in the treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in stimulant-naïve Swedish children and adolescents. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2009;18:240-9 «PMID: 19156355»PubMed
  158. Faraone SV, Buitelaar J. Comparing the efficacy of stimulants for ADHD in children and adolescents using meta-analysis. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2010;19:353-64 «PMID: 19763664»PubMed
  159. Faraone SV, Biederman J, Spencer TJ ym. Comparing the efficacy of medications for ADHD using meta-analysis. MedGenMed 2006;8:4 «PMID: 17415287»PubMed
  160. Faraone SV. Using Meta-analysis to Compare the Efficacy of Medications for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Youths. P T 2009;34:678-94 «PMID: 20140141»PubMed
  161. Kollins SH, Jain R, Brams M ym. Clonidine extended-release tablets as add-on therapy to psychostimulants in children and adolescents with ADHD. Pediatrics 2011;127:e1406-13 «PMID: 21555501»PubMed
  162. Hammerness P, Georgiopoulos A, Doyle RL ym. An open study of adjunct OROS-methylphenidate in children who are atomoxetine partial responders: II. Tolerability and pharmacokinetics. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2009;19:493-9 «PMID: 19877973»PubMed
  163. Questions and answers on the review of medicines containing methylphenidate. London, 22 January 2009 Doc. Ref. EMEA/658285/2008. http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/Referrals_document/Methylphenidate_31/WC500011125.pdf «http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/Referrals_document/Methylphenidate_31/WC500011125.pdf»17
  164. Savikko N, Pitkälä K. Hoitoon sitoutumisen merkitys ja haasteet. TABU 2006;5:4-7
  165. Bélanger SA, Warren AE, Hamilton RM ym. Cardiac risk assessment before the use of stimulant medications in children and youth. Paediatr Child Health 2009;14:579-92 «PMID: 21037835»PubMed
  166. Hanc T, Cieslik J. Growth in stimulant-naive children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder using cross-sectional and longitudinal approaches. Pediatrics 2008;121:e967-74 «PMID: 18381524»PubMed
  167. Hubel R, Jass J, Marcus A ym. Overweight and basal metabolic rate in boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Eat Weight Disord 2006;11:139-46 «PMID: 17075241»PubMed
  168. Faraone SV, Biederman J, Morley CP ym. Effect of stimulants on height and weight: a review of the literature. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2008;47:994-1009 «PMID: 18580502»PubMed
  169. Mosholder AD, Gelperin K, Hammad TA ym. Hallucinations and other psychotic symptoms associated with the use of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder drugs in children. Pediatrics 2009;123:611-6 «PMID: 19171629»PubMed
  170. Gelperin K. Review of Postmarketing Safety Data. http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/ac/06/briefing/2006-4210b_11_01_AdverseEvents.pdf «http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/ac/06/briefing/2006-4210b_11_01_AdverseEvents.pdf»7
  171. Ross RG. Psychotic and manic-like symptoms during stimulant treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Psychiatry 2006;163:1149-52 «PMID: 16816217»PubMed
  172. Kratochvil CJ, Wilens TE, Greenhill LL ym. Effects of long-term atomoxetine treatment for young children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2006;45:919-27 «PMID: 16865034»PubMed
  173. Villalba L, Racoosin J. Follow up review of AERS search identifying cases of sudden death occurring with drugs used for the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/ac/06/briefing/2006-4210b_07_01_safetyreview.pdf «http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/ac/06/briefing/2006-4210b_07_01_safetyreview.pdf»18
  174. Hechtman L, Abikoff H, Klein RG ym. Children with ADHD treated with long-term methylphenidate and multimodal psychosocial treatment: impact on parental practices. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2004;43:830-8 «PMID: 15213584»PubMed
  175. Gevensleben H, Holl B, Albrecht B ym. Is neurofeedback an efficacious treatment for ADHD? A randomised controlled clinical trial. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2009;50:780-9 «PMID: 19207632»PubMed
  176. Rojas NL, Chan E. Old and new controversies in the alternative treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev 2005;11:116-30 «PMID: 15977318»PubMed
  177. The use of alternative therapies in treating children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Paediatr Child Health 2002;7:710-30 «PMID: 20046453»PubMed
  178. Sinha D, Efron D. Complementary and alternative medicine use in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. J Paediatr Child Health 2005;41:23-6 «PMID: 15670219»PubMed
  179. Bloch MH, Qawasmi A. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation for the treatment of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptomatology: systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2011;50:991-1000 «PMID: 21961774»PubMed
  180. McCann D, Barrett A, Cooper A ym. Food additives and hyperactive behaviour in 3-year-old and 8/9-year-old children in the community: a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2007;370:1560-7 «PMID: 17825405»PubMed
  181. Stevenson J, Sonuga-Barke E, McCann D ym. The role of histamine degradation gene polymorphisms in moderating the effects of food additives on children's ADHD symptoms. Am J Psychiatry 2010;167:1108-15 «PMID: 20551163»PubMed
  182. Starobrat-Hermelin B, Kozielec T. The effects of magnesium physiological supplementation on hyperactivity in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Positive response to magnesium oral loading test. Magnes Res 1997;10:149-56 «PMID: 9368236»PubMed
  183. Konofal E, Lecendreux M, Arnulf I ym. Iron deficiency in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2004;158:1113-5 «PMID: 15583094»PubMed
  184. Toren P, Eldar S, Sela BA ym. Zinc deficiency in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry 1996;40:1308-10 «PMID: 8959299»PubMed
  185. Arnold LE, DiSilvestro RA. Zinc in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2005;15:619-27 «PMID: 16190793»PubMed
  186. Oner O, Oner P, Bozkurt OH ym. Effects of zinc and ferritin levels on parent and teacher reported symptom scores in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev 2010;41:441-7 «PMID: 20238159»PubMed
  187. Mousain-Bosc M, Roche M, Polge A ym. Improvement of neurobehavioral disorders in children supplemented with magnesium-vitamin B6. I. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorders. Magnes Res 2006;19:46-52 «PMID: 16846100»PubMed
  188. Cortese S, Konofal E, Bernardina BD ym. Sleep disturbances and serum ferritin levels in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2009;18:393-9 «PMID: 19205783»PubMed
  189. Levy SE, Mandell DS, Schultz RT. Autism. Lancet 2009;374:1627-38 «PMID: 19819542»PubMed
  190. Fisman S. Pervasive developmental disorder. Kirjassa: Kutcher S (toim.) Practical Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology. Cambridge University Press, 2002.
  191. Bloch MH, Panza KE, Landeros-Weisenberger A ym. Meta-analysis: treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children with comorbid tic disorders. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2009;48:884-93 «PMID: 19625978»PubMed
  192. Saarenpää-Heikkilä O. Koululaisten uniongelmia voidaan ehkäistä ennalta. Suom Lääkär 2009;1-2:35-41.
  193. Weiss MD, Wasdell MB, Bomben MM ym. Sleep hygiene and melatonin treatment for children and adolescents with ADHD and initial insomnia. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2006;45:512-9 «PMID: 16670647»PubMed
  194. Connor DF, Glatt SJ, Lopez ID ym. Psychopharmacology and aggression. I: A meta-analysis of stimulant effects on overt/covert aggression-related behaviors in ADHD. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2002;41:253-61 «PMID: 11886019»PubMed
  195. Brestan EV, Eyberg SM. Effective psychosocial treatments of conduct-disordered children and adolescents: 29 years, 82 studies, and 5,272 kids. J Clin Child Psychol 1998;27:180-9 «PMID: 9648035»PubMed
  196. Klein RG, Abikoff H, Klass E ym. Clinical efficacy of methylphenidate in conduct disorder with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1997;54:1073-80 «PMID: 9400342»PubMed
  197. Aman MG, Binder C, Turgay A. Risperidone effects in the presence/absence of psychostimulant medicine in children with ADHD, other disruptive behavior disorders, and subaverage IQ. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2004;14:243-54 «PMID: 15319021»PubMed
  198. Günther T, Herpertz-Dahlmann B, Jolles J ym. The influence of risperidone on attentional functions in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and co-morbid disruptive behavior disorder. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2006;16:725-35 «PMID: 17201616»PubMed
  199. Armenteros JL, Lewis JE, Davalos M. Risperidone augmentation for treatment-resistant aggression in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a placebo-controlled pilot study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2007;46:558-65 «PMID: 17450046»PubMed
  200. Jensen PS, Hinshaw SP, Kraemer HC ym. ADHD comorbidity findings from the MTA study: comparing comorbid subgroups. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2001;40:147-58 «PMID: 11211363»PubMed
  201. Geller D, Donnelly C, Lopez F ym. Atomoxetine treatment for pediatric patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with comorbid anxiety disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2007;46:1119-27 «PMID: 17712235»PubMed
  202. Remschmidt H, Global ADHD Working Group. Global consensus on ADHD/HKD. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2005;14:127-37 «PMID: 15959658»PubMed
  203. DelBello MP, Soutullo CA, Hendricks W ym. Prior stimulant treatment in adolescents with bipolar disorder: association with age at onset. Bipolar Disord 2001;3:53-7 «PMID: 11333062»PubMed
  204. Tillman R, Geller B. Controlled study of switching from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder to a prepubertal and early adolescent bipolar I disorder phenotype during 6-year prospective follow-up: rate, risk, and predictors. Dev Psychopathol 2006;18:1037-53 «PMID: 17064428»PubMed
  205. Scheffer RE, Kowatch RA, Carmody T ym. Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of mixed amphetamine salts for symptoms of comorbid ADHD in pediatric bipolar disorder after mood stabilization with divalproex sodium. Am J Psychiatry 2005;162:58-64 «PMID: 15625202»PubMed
  206. Hah M, Chang K. Atomoxetine for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents with bipolar disorders. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2005;15:996-1004 «PMID: 16379520»PubMed
  207. Findling RL, Short EJ, McNamara NK ym. Methylphenidate in the treatment of children and adolescents with bipolar disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2007;46:1445-53 «PMID: 18049294»PubMed
  208. Chang K, Nayar D, Howe M ym. Atomoxetine as an adjunct therapy in the treatment of co-morbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents with bipolar I or II disorder. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2009;19:547-51 «PMID: 19877979»PubMed
  209. Tossell JW, Greenstein DK, Davidson AL ym. Stimulant drug treatment in childhood-onset schizophrenia with comorbid ADHD: an open-label case series. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2004;14:448-54 «PMID: 15650502»PubMed
  210. Lastensuojelulaki. http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/ajantasa/2007/20070417 «http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/ajantasa/2007/20070417»9
  211. Rush CR, Higgins ST, Vansickel AR ym. Methylphenidate increases cigarette smoking. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2005;181:781-9 «PMID: 15983792»PubMed
  212. Reilly CJ. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood epilepsy. Res Dev Disabil 2011;32:883-93 «PMID: 21310586»PubMed
  213. Handen BL, Feldman H, Gosling A ym. Adverse side effects of methylphenidate among mentally retarded children with ADHD. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1991;30:241-5 «PMID: 2016228»PubMed
  214. Thomson A, Maltezos S, Paliokosta E ym. Amfetamine for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in people with intellectual disabilities. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009;1:CD007009 «PMID: 19160313»PubMed
  215. Thomson A, Maltezos S, Paliokosta E ym. Risperidone for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in people with intellectual disabilities. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009;2:CD007011 «PMID: 19370667»PubMed
  216. Spencer TJ, Biederman J, Mick E. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: diagnosis, lifespan, comorbidities, and neurobiology. Ambul Pediatr 2007;7:73-81 «PMID: 17261486»PubMed
  217. Biederman J, Petty CR, Evans M ym. How persistent is ADHD? A controlled 10-year follow-up study of boys with ADHD. Psychiatry Res 2010;177:299-304 «PMID: 20452063»PubMed
  218. Fabiano GA, Pelham WE Jr, Coles EK ym. A meta-analysis of behavioral treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Clin Psychol Rev 2009;29:129-40 «PMID: 19131150»PubMed
  219. Stein DS, Blum NJ, Barbaresi WJ. Developmental and behavioral disorders through the life span. Pediatrics 2011;128:364-73 «PMID: 21768324»PubMed
  220. Seidman LJ, Biederman J, Weber W ym. Neuropsychological function in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry 1998;44:260-8 «PMID: 9715357»PubMed
  221. Lee LC, Harrington RA, Chang JJ ym. Increased risk of injury in children with developmental disabilities. Res Dev Disabil 2008;29:247-55 «PMID: 17582739»PubMed
  222. Palili A, Kolaitis G, Vassi I ym. Inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity--epidemiology and correlations: a nationwide greek study from birth to 18 years. J Child Neurol 2011;26:199-204 «PMID: 20921568»PubMed
  223. Garzon DL, Huang H, Todd RD. Do attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and oppositional defiant disorder influence preschool unintentional injury risk? Arch Psychiatr Nurs 2008;22:288-96 «PMID: 18809121»PubMed
  224. Schwebel DC, Speltz ML, Jones K ym. Unintentional injury in preschool boys with and without early onset of disruptive behavior. J Pediatr Psychol 2002;27:727-37 «PMID: 12403863»PubMed
  225. Schwebel DC, Hodgens JB, Sterling S. How mothers parent their children with behavior disorders: implications for unintentional injury risk. J Safety Res 2006;37:167-73 «PMID: 16674977»PubMed
  226. Fischer M, Barkley RA, Smallish L ym. Hyperactive children as young adults: driving abilities, safe driving behavior, and adverse driving outcomes. Accid Anal Prev 2007;39:94-105 «PMID: 16919226»PubMed
  227. Shelton D, Pearson G. ADHD in juvenile offenders: treatment issues nurses need to know. J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 2005;43:38-46 «PMID: 16252801»PubMed
  228. Retz W, Retz-Junginger P, Hengesch G ym. Psychometric and psychopathological characterization of young male prison inmates with and without attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2004;254:201-8 «PMID: 15309387»PubMed
  229. Sourander A, Elonheimo H, Niemela S ym. Childhood predictors of male criminality: a prospective population-based follow-up study from age 8 to late adolescence. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2006;45:578-86 «PMID: 16670652»PubMed
  230. Wilens TE, Adamson J, Monuteaux MC ym. Effect of prior stimulant treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder on subsequent risk for cigarette smoking and alcohol and drug use disorders in adolescents. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2008;162:916-21 «PMID: 18838643»PubMed
  231. Mannuzza S, Klein RG, Truong NL ym. Age of methylphenidate treatment initiation in children with ADHD and later substance abuse: prospective follow-up into adulthood. Am J Psychiatry 2008;165:604-9 «PMID: 18381904»PubMed
  232. Sihvola E, Rose RJ, Dick DM ym. Prospective relationships of ADHD symptoms with developing substance use in a population-derived sample. Psychol Med 2011;20:1-9 «PMID: 21733216»PubMed
  233. Danckaerts M, Sonuga-Barke EJ, Banaschewski T ym. The quality of life of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a systematic review. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2010;19:83-105 «PMID: 19633992»PubMed
  234. Connor DF, Carlson GA, Chang KD ym. Juvenile maladaptive aggression: a review of prevention, treatment, and service configuration and a proposed research agenda. J Clin Psychiatry 2006;67:808-20 «PMID: 16841631»PubMed
  235. Prasad S, Harpin V, Poole L ym. A multi-centre, randomised, open-label study of atomoxetine compared with standard current therapy in UK children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Curr Med Res Opin 2007;23:379-94 «PMID: 17288692»PubMed
  236. Krauss MR, Russell RK, Powers TE ym. Accession standards for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a survival analysis of military recruits, 1995-2000. Mil Med 2006;171:99-102 «PMID: 16578975»PubMed
  237. Hess DW, Kennedy CH, Hardin RA, Kupke T. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and learning disorders. In Military neuropsychology (pp.199-226). Eds Kennedy C, Moore JL New York, NY, US, Springler publishing books 2010.
  238. Friedman LS, Blaschke GS, Klam WP ym. ADHD, medication, and the military service: a pediatrician's dilemma. J Dev Behav Pediatr 2006;27:141-4 «PMID: 16682880»PubMed
  239. Terveystarkastusohje 2008. Puolustusvoimat. Saatavana http://www.terveysportti.fi «http://www.terveysportti.fi»19, http://www.puolustusvoimat.fi «http://www.puolustusvoimat.fi/wcm/a5f4c0804ff1ef5ca8c3afc5307e1861/Terveystarkastusohje+TTO+2012.pdf?MOD=AJPERES&CONVERT_TO=url&CACHEID=a5f4c0804ff1ef5ca8c3afc5307e1861»20
  240. Arnold LE, Disilvestro RA, Bozzolo D ym. Zinc for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: placebo-controlled double-blind pilot trial alone and combined with amphetamine. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2011;21:1-19 «PMID: 21309695»PubMed
  241. Mahmoud MM, El-Mazary AA, Maher RM ym. Zinc, ferritin, magnesium and copper in a group of Egyptian children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Ital J Pediatr 2011;37:60 «PMID: 22206662»PubMed
  242. Akhondzadeh S, Mohammadi MR, Khademi M. Zinc sulfate as an adjunct to methylphenidate for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children: a double blind and randomized trial [ISRCTN64132371]. BMC Psychiatry 2004;4:9 «PMID: 15070418»PubMed
  243. A systematic review and economic model of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of methylphenidate, dexamfetamine and atomoxetine for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescent. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/cldare/articles/DARE-12006008361/frame.html «http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/cldare/articles/DARE-12006008361/frame.html»21
  244. Abikoff H, Hechtman L, Klein RG ym. Symptomatic improvement in children with ADHD treated with long-term methylphenidate and multimodal psychosocial treatment. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2004;43:802-11 «PMID: 15213581»PubMed
  245. Airaksinen EM, Michelsson K, Jokela V. The occurrence of inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity and coexisting symptoms in a population study of 471 6-8-year old children based on the FTF (Five to Fifteen) questionnaire. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2004;13 Suppl 3:23-30 «PMID: 15692876»PubMed
  246. Aman MG, Buican B, Arnold LE. Methylphenidate treatment in children with borderline IQ and mental retardation: analysis of three aggregated studies. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2003;13:29-40 «PMID: 12804124»PubMed
  247. Arns M, de Ridder S, Strehl U ym. Efficacy of neurofeedback treatment in ADHD: the effects on inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity: a meta-analysis. Clin EEG Neurosci 2009;40:180-9 «PMID: 19715181»PubMed
  248. Barkley RA, Shelton TL, Crosswait C ym. Multi-method psycho-educational intervention for preschool children with disruptive behavior: preliminary results at post-treatment. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2000;41:319-32 «PMID: 10784079»PubMed
  249. Beck SJ, Hanson CA, Puffenberger SS ym. A controlled trial of working memory training for children and adolescents with ADHD. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 2010;39:825-36 «PMID: 21058129»PubMed
  250. Biederman J, Melmed RD, Patel A ym. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of guanfacine extended release in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Pediatrics 2008;121:e73-84 «PMID: 18166547»PubMed
  251. Biederman J, Swanson JM, Wigal SB ym. A comparison of once-daily and divided doses of modafinil in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study. J Clin Psychiatry 2006;67:727-35 «PMID: 16841622»PubMed
  252. Biederman J, Swanson JM, Wigal SB ym. Efficacy and safety of modafinil film-coated tablets in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, flexible-dose study. Pediatrics 2005;116:e777-84 «PMID: 16322134»PubMed
  253. Biederman J, Wilens T, Mick E ym. Pharmacotherapy of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder reduces risk for substance use disorder. Pediatrics 1999;104:e20 «PMID: 10429138»PubMed
  254. Bjornstad G, Montgomery P. Family therapy for attention-deficit disorder or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005;:CD005042 «PMID: 15846741»PubMed
  255. Bohlin G, Janols LO. Behavioural problems and psychiatric symptoms in 5-13 year-old Swedish children-a comparison of parent ratings on the FTF (Five to Fifteen) with the ratings on CBCL (Child Behavior Checklist). Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2004;13 Suppl 3:14-22 «PMID: 15692875»PubMed
  256. Chronis AM, Chacko A, Fabiano GA ym. Enhancements to the behavioral parent training paradigm for families of children with ADHD: review and future directions. Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev 2004;7:1-27 «PMID: 15119686»PubMed
  257. Conners CK, Casat CD, Gualtieri CT ym. Bupropion hydrochloride in attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1996;35:1314-21 «PMID: 8885585»PubMed
  258. Connor DF, Findling RL, Kollins SH ym. Effects of guanfacine extended release on oppositional symptoms in children aged 6-12 years with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and oppositional symptoms: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. CNS Drugs 2010;24:755-68 «PMID: 20806988»PubMed
  259. Correia Filho AG, Bodanese R, Silva TL ym. Comparison of risperidone and methylphenidate for reducing ADHD symptoms in children and adolescents with moderate mental retardation. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2005;44:748-55 «PMID: 16034276»PubMed
  260. Daviss WB, Patel NC, Robb AS ym. Clonidine for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: II. ECG changes and adverse events analysis. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2008;47:189-98 «PMID: 18182964»PubMed
  261. DuPaul GJ, Eckert TL. The effects of school-based interventions for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A meta-analysis. Sch Psych Rev 1997;26:5-27
  262. Elbe D, Macbride A, Reddy D. Focus on Lisdexamfetamine: A Review of its use in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. J Can Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2010;19:303-14 «PMID: 21037922»PubMed
  263. Forbes GB. Clinical utility of the Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA) in the diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Clin Psychol 1998;54:461-76 «PMID: 9623751»PubMed
  264. Frazier TW, Demaree HA, Youngstrom EA. Meta-analysis of intellectual and neuropsychological test performance in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Neuropsychology 2004;18:543-55 «PMID: 15291732»PubMed
  265. Goodman R. Psychometric properties of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2001;40:1337-45 «PMID: 11699809»PubMed
  266. Greenhill LL, Biederman J, Boellner SW ym. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of modafinil film-coated tablets in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2006;45:503-11 «PMID: 16601402»PubMed
  267. Handen BL, Janosky J, McAuliffe S ym. Prediction of response to methylphenidate among children with ADHD and mental retardation. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1994;33:1185-93 «PMID: 7982869»PubMed
  268. Homack S, Riccio CA. A meta-analysis of the sensitivity and specificity of the Stroop Color and Word Test with children. Arch Clin Neuropsychol 2004;19:725-43 «PMID: 15288327»PubMed
  269. Horn WF, Ialongo NS, Pascoe JM ym. Additive effects of psychostimulants, parent training, and self-control therapy with ADHD children. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1991;30:233-40 «PMID: 2016227»PubMed
  270. Jadad AR, Boyle M, Cunningham C, Kim M, Schachar R. Treatment of attention- deficit/hyperactivity disorder. 1999. 1-341. Rockville, MD, USA: AHRQ. AHRQ evidence reports and summaries 11. AHRQ Publication No. 00-E005; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK33078/
  271. Jadad AR, Moore RA, Carroll D ym. Assessing the quality of reports of randomized clinical trials: is blinding necessary? Control Clin Trials 1996;17:1-12 «PMID: 8721797»PubMed
  272. Jain R, Segal S, Kollins SH ym. Clonidine extended-release tablets for pediatric patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2011;50:171-9 «PMID: 21241954»PubMed
  273. Johnson M, Ostlund S, Fransson G ym. Omega-3/omega-6 fatty acids for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a randomized placebo-controlled trial in children and adolescents. J Atten Disord 2009;12:394-401 «PMID: 18448859»PubMed
  274. Kadesjö B, Janols LO, Korkman M ym. The FTF (Five to Fifteen): the development of a parent questionnaire for the assessment of ADHD and comorbid conditions. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2004;13 Suppl 3:3-13 «PMID: 15692877»PubMed
  275. Kahbazi M, Ghoreishi A, Rahiminejad F ym. A randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled trial of modafinil in children and adolescents with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder. Psychiatry Res 2009;168:234-7 «PMID: 19439364»PubMed
  276. Katusic SK, Barbaresi WJ, Colligan RC ym. Psychostimulant treatment and risk for substance abuse among young adults with a history of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a population-based, birth cohort study. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2005;15:764-76 «PMID: 16262593»PubMed
  277. Kavale KA, Forness SR. Hyperactivity and diet treatment: a meta-analysis of the Feingold hypothesis. J Learn Disabil 1983;16:324-30 «PMID: 6886553»PubMed
  278. Kelsey DK, Sumner CR, Casat CD ym. Once-daily atomoxetine treatment for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, including an assessment of evening and morning behavior: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Pediatrics 2004;114:e1-8 «PMID: 15231966»PubMed
  279. Kern L, DuPaul GJ, Volpe RJ ym. Multisetting assessment-based intervention for young children at risk for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Initial effects of academic and behavioral functioning. School Psychology Review 2007;237-55
  280. King S, Griffin S, Hodges Z ym. A systematic review and economic model of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of methylphenidate, dexamfetamine and atomoxetine for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. Health Technol Assess 2006;10:iii-iv, xiii-146
  281. Klassen A, Miller A, Raina P ym. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and youth: a quantitative systematic review of the efficacy of different management strategies. Can J Psychiatry 1999;44:1007-16 «PMID: 10637680»PubMed
  282. Klenberg L, Jämsä S, Häyrinen T, Lahti-Nuutila P, Korkman M. Kesky–Keskittymiskysely. Psykologien kustannus: Helsinki, 2010
  283. Klingberg T, Fernell E, Olesen PJ ym. Computerized training of working memory in children with ADHD--a randomized, controlled trial. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2005;44:177-86 «PMID: 15689731»PubMed
  284. Korkman M, Jaakkola M, Ahlroth A ym. Screening of developmental disorders in five-year-olds using the FTF (Five to Fifteen) questionnaire: a validation study. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2004;13 Suppl 3:31-8 «PMID: 15692878»PubMed
  285. Koskelainen M, Sourander A, Kaljonen A. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire among Finnish school-aged children and adolescents. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2000;9:277-84 «PMID: 11202103»PubMed
  286. Lord J, Paisley S. The clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of methylphenidate for hyperactivity in childhood. London: NICE, July 2000; http://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/index.jsp?action=download&r=true&o=32112 «http://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/index.jsp?action=download&r=true&o=32112»22
  287. Matier-Sharma K, Perachio N, Newcorn JH ym. Differential diagnosis of ADHD: Are objective measures of attention, impulsivity, and activity level helpful? Child Neuropsychology 1995;1:118-27
  288. McGee RA, Clark SE, Symons DK. Does the Conners' Continuous Performance Test aid in ADHD diagnosis? J Abnorm Child Psychol 2000;28:415-24 «PMID: 11100916»PubMed
  289. McGoey KE, DuPaul GJ, Eckert TL, Volpe RJ, VanBrakle J. Outcomes of a multi-component intervention for preschool children at-risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Child and Family Behavior Therapy 2005;27:33-56
  290. McGoey KE, Eckert TL, DuPaul GJ. Early intervention for preschool-age children with ADHD: a literature review. J Emotion Behav Disorders 2002;10:14-28
  291. Mezzacappa E, Buckner JC. Working memory training for children with attention problems or hyperacitivity: A school based pilot study. School Mental Health 2010;2:202-8
  292. Michelson D, Allen AJ, Busner J ym. Once-daily atomoxetine treatment for children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a randomized, placebo-controlled study. Am J Psychiatry 2002;159:1896-901 «PMID: 12411225»PubMed
  293. Michelson D, Faries D, Wernicke J ym. Atomoxetine in the treatment of children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-response study. Pediatrics 2001;108:E83 «PMID: 11694667»PubMed
  294. Newcorn JH, Kratochvil CJ, Allen AJ ym. Atomoxetine and osmotically released methylphenidate for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: acute comparison and differential response. Am J Psychiatry 2008;165:721-30 «PMID: 18281409»PubMed
  295. Palumbo DR, Sallee FR, Pelham WE Jr ym. Clonidine for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: I. Efficacy and tolerability outcomes. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2008;47:180-8 «PMID: 18182963»PubMed
  296. Pearson DA, Santos CW, Casat CD ym. Treatment effects of methylphenidate on cognitive functioning in children with mental retardation and ADHD. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2004;43:677-85 «PMID: 15167084»PubMed
  297. Pearson DA, Santos CW, Roache JD ym. Treatment effects of methylphenidate on behavioral adjustment in children with mental retardation and ADHD. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2003;42:209-16 «PMID: 12544181»PubMed
  298. Pineda DA, Puerta IC, Aguirre DC ym. The role of neuropsychologic tests in the diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Pediatr Neurol 2007;36:373-81 «PMID: 17560498»PubMed
  299. Rapport MD, Moffitt C. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and methylphenidate. A review of height/weight, cardiovascular, and somatic complaint side effects. Clin Psychol Rev 2002;22:1107-31 «PMID: 12436807»PubMed
  300. Raz R, Carasso RL, Yehuda S. The influence of short-chain essential fatty acids on children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a double-blind placebo-controlled study. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2009;19:167-77 «PMID: 19364294»PubMed
  301. Robinson TR, Smith SW, Miller MD, Brownell MT. Cognitive behaviour modification of hyperactivity-impulsivity and aggression: a meta-analysis of school-based studies. J Educ Psychology 1999;91:195-203 (DARE-20008462)
  302. Romine CB, Lee D, Wolfe ME ym. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test with children: a meta-analytic study of sensitivity and specificity. Arch Clin Neuropsychol 2004;19:1027-41 «PMID: 15533695»PubMed
  303. Sallee FR, McGough J, Wigal T ym. Guanfacine extended release in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a placebo-controlled trial. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2009;48:155-65 «PMID: 19106767»PubMed
  304. Samuels JA, Franco K, Wan F ym. Effect of stimulants on 24-h ambulatory blood pressure in children with ADHD: a double-blind, randomized, cross-over trial. Pediatr Nephrol 2006;21:92-5 «PMID: 16254730»PubMed
  305. Scahill L, Chappell PB, Kim YS ym. A placebo-controlled study of guanfacine in the treatment of children with tic disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Psychiatry 2001;158:1067-74 «PMID: 11431228»PubMed
  306. Schachter HM, Pham B, King J ym. How efficacious and safe is short-acting methylphenidate for the treatment of attention-deficit disorder in children and adolescents? A meta-analysis. CMAJ 2001;165:1475-88 «PMID: 11762571»PubMed
  307. Schatz AM, Ballantyne AO, Trauner DA. Sensitivity and specificity of a computerized test of attention in the diagnosis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Assessment 2001;8:357-65 «PMID: 11785580»PubMed
  308. Schmidt MH, Möcks P, Lay B ym. Does oligoantigenic diet influence hyperactive/conduct-disordered children--a controlled trial. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1997;6:88-95 «PMID: 9257090»PubMed
  309. Shelton TL, Barkley RA, Crosswait C ym. Multimethod psychoeducational intervention for preschool children with disruptive behavior: two-year post-treatment follow-up. J Abnorm Child Psychol 2000;28:253-66 «PMID: 10885683»PubMed
  310. Shukla VK, Otten N. Assessment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder therapy: a Canadian perspective. Ottawa: CCOHTA.1999. http://www.cadth.ca/index.php/en/hta/reports-publications/search/publication/36
  311. Singer HS, Brown J, Quaskey S ym. The treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in Tourette's syndrome: a double-blind placebo-controlled study with clonidine and desipramine. Pediatrics 1995;95:74-81 «PMID: 7770313»PubMed
  312. Spencer T, Heiligenstein JH, Biederman J ym. Results from 2 proof-of-concept, placebo-controlled studies of atomoxetine in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Clin Psychiatry 2002;63:1140-7 «PMID: 12523874»PubMed
  313. Stone LL, Otten R, Engels RC ym. Psychometric properties of the parent and teacher versions of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire for 4- to 12-year-olds: a review. Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev 2010;13:254-74 «PMID: 20589428»PubMed
  314. Stowe CD, Gardner SF, Gist CC ym. 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in male children receiving stimulant therapy. Ann Pharmacother 2002;36:1142-9 «PMID: 12086544»PubMed
  315. Swanson JM, Greenhill LL, Lopez FA ym. Modafinil film-coated tablets in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose study followed by abrupt discontinuation. J Clin Psychiatry 2006;67:137-47 «PMID: 16426100»PubMed
  316. The MTA Cooperating Group. A 14-month randomized clinical trial of treatment strategies for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1999;56:1073-86
  317. Tourette´s Syndrome Study Group. Treatment of ADHD in children with tics: a randomized controlled trial. Neurology 2002;58:527-36
  318. Van der Oord S, Prins PJ, Oosterlaan J ym. Efficacy of methylphenidate, psychosocial treatments and their combination in school-aged children with ADHD: a meta-analysis. Clin Psychol Rev 2008;28:783-800 «PMID: 18068284»PubMed
  319. Voigt RG, Llorente AM, Jensen CL ym. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Pediatr 2001;139:189-96 «PMID: 11487742»PubMed
  320. Wigal SB, Kollins SH, Childress AC ym. A 13-hour laboratory school study of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in school-aged children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health 2009;3:17 «PMID: 19508731»PubMed
  321. Wigal SB, Kollins SH, Childress AC ym. Efficacy and tolerability of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: sex and age effects and effect size across the day. Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health 2010;4:32 «PMID: 21156071»PubMed
  322. Wilens TE, Faraone SV, Biederman J ym. Does stimulant therapy of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder beget later substance abuse? A meta-analytic review of the literature. Pediatrics 2003;111:179-85 «PMID: 12509574»PubMed
  323. Wolraich ML, Wilson DB, White JW. The effect of sugar on behavior or cognition in children. A meta-analysis. JAMA 1995;274:1617-21 «PMID: 7474248»PubMed
Käypä hoito -suositukset ovat riippumattomia, tutkimusnäyttöön perustuvia kansallisia hoitosuosituksia. Lue lisää
LINKKIEN TYYPIT JA VÄRIKOODIT
Kirjallisuusviite
Kuva
Linkki toiselle sivustolle
Lisätietoa
Näytönastekatsaus
PDF-tiedosto
PubMed-abstrakti
Taulukko